Friday , 24 February 2017

S1 Pendidikan Kimia-Matakuliah Kimia Fisika I

Kompetensi/Competencies

Menguasahi secara komprehensif keadaan gas, cair, dan padat, sifat-sifat zat murni dan campuran serta dapat menjelaskan gejala-gejala kimia yang ter­kait ber­da­sar­kan hukum-hukum termodinamika./Students comprehend gaseous state, liquid state and solid state of matter, pro­perties of pure matter and mixture to be able to explain chemical changes re­lated to them accor­ding to the thermodynamics laws.

Bahan Kajian/Subject Matters

(1) Keadaan gas: karakteristik umum gas, hukum-hukum gas, persamaan gas ideal, teori molekul kinetik gas, penurunan kinetik persamaan gas, dis­tri­busi kecepatan molekul, macam-macam kecepatan molekul, perhitungan ke­cepatan molekul, sifat-sifat tumbukan, gas nyata, persamaan van der Waals, pencairan gas, gejala kritik, hukum keadaan sehubungan, metode pen­cairan gas; (2)  Keadaan Cair: Gaya antar molekul dalam zat cair, gaya ta­rik dipol-dipol, gaya london, ikatan hidrogen, teka­nan uap, pengaruh su­hu pada tekanan uap, penentuan tekanan uap, metode statik, me­tode di­na­mik, pengaruh tekanan uap pada titik didih, tegangan per­mukaan, pe­nen­tuan tegangan permukaan, viskositas, pengukuran viskositas, pengaruh suhu pada viskositas zat cair, indeks refraksi, refraksi molar, penentuan indeks refraksi, aktivitas optik, rotasi spesifik, pengukuran aktifitas optic; (3) Hukum ke Nol dan Pertama Termodinamika: keadaan sistem, hukum ke nol ter­mo­di­n­maika, skala suhu gas ideal, kerja dan panas, hukum pertama termodinmaika, energi internal, dife­ren­sial eksak dan tak eksak, kerja kom­presi dan ekspansi gas pada suhu tetap, berbagai jenis kerja, peru­bahan keadaan pada volume tetap, entalpi, kapasitas panas, ekpansi Joule-Thom­son, Proses adiabat, entalpi pem­bentukan; (4) Termokimia: satuan peru­ba­han energi, entalpi reaksi kimia, reaksi eksotermis dan endotermis, per­sa­maan termokimia, panas reaksi atau entalpi reaksi, perubahan entalpi ka­rena perubahan suhu, macam-macam entalpi reaksi, panas pembakaran panas pelarutan, panas netralisasi, perubahan energi pada perubahan fase, panas peleburan, panas penguapan, panas sublimasi, panas tran­sisi, hukum Hess,  aplikasi hukum Hess, ka­lo­rimetri; (5) Hukum kedua dan ke­ti­ga ter­mo­dinamika: entropi sebagai fungsi keadaan, hukum kedua ter­mo­di­na­mi­ka, pe­ru­­­bahan entropi pada proses reversible, perubahan entropi pada pro­ses irre­ver­sible, entropi pencampuran gas ideal, entro­pi dan pro­babi­li­tas, kalorimetri penen­tuan entropi, hukum ketiga termo­di­na­mika; (6) Kese­tim­bangan fasa: fasa, kom­po­nen, derajat kebebasan, aturan fasa, diagram fasa sistem satu komponen, per­sa­maan Clapeyron, persamaan Clausius–Clapey­ron, Kesetimbangan uap-cair sistem cam­puran biner, tekanan uap cam­puran non ideal dan hukum Henry, sistem dua komponen fasa cair dan padat, topik khu­sus: penga­ruh tegangan permukaan pada tekanan uap; (7) Ke­se­timbangan kim­ia: pe­nurunan ung­kapan kesetimbangan, tetapan kese­tim­bangan reaksi gas, pe­nen­­tuan te­tapan kesetimbangan, penggunaan ener­gi pembentukan bebas Gibbs untuk menghitung tetapan kesetim­ba­ng­a­n, pengaruh suhu pada tetapan kesetim­bangan, pengaruh tekanan, kom­­­po­sisi awal dan gas inert pada komposisi kesetim­bangan, tetapan ke­se­­tim­­bangan dalam kon­sent­rasi./(1) Gaseous State: General Characteristics of Gases, Parameters of a Gas, Gas Laws, The Ideal-Gas Equation, Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases, Derivation of Kinetic Gas Equation, Distribution of Molecular Velocities, Different Kinds of Velocities,  Calcu­lation of Molecular Velocities, Collision Properties, Real Gas, Van Der Waals Equation, Liquefaction of Gases, Critical Phenomenon, Law of Corresponding States, Methods of Liquefaction of Gases; (2) Liquids State: Intermolecular Forces in Liquids, Dipole-Dipole Attractions, London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding, Vapor Pressure, Effect of tem­pe­rature on vapor pressure, Determination of vapor pressure, The Static method, The Dynamic method, Effect of vapor pressure on boiling points, Surface Tension, Units of Surface Tension, Determination of Surface Tension, (Capillary rise Method, Drop For­ma­tion Method, Ring-detachment Method, Bubble Pressure Method, Viscosity, Units of  Viscosity, Measurement Of Viscosity, Ostwald Method, Effect of Temperature on Viscosity of a Liquid, Refractive Index, Molar Refraction, Deter­mina­tion of Refractive Index, Optical Activity, Specific Rotation, Measurement of Optical Activity; (3) Zeroth and First Law of Thermodynamics: State of a System, The Zeroth Law of Thermody­namics, The Ideal Gas Temperature Scale, Work and Heat, First Law of Thermody­namics and Internal Energy, Exact and Inexact Differentials, Work of Compression and Expansion of a Gas at Constant Temperature, Various Kinds of Work, Change in State at Constant Volume, Enthalpy and Change of State at Constant Pressure, Heat Capacities, Joule Thomson Expansion, Adiabatic Processes with Gases ,Thermochemis­try, Enthalpy of Formation, Calorimetry; (4) Thermoc­he­mis­try: Units of Energy Changes, Enthalpy of a Reaction, Exothermic And Endothermic Reactions, Ther­moche­mical Equations, Heat of Reaction or Enthalpy of Reaction, Variation of Heat (or Enthalpy) of Reaction With Temperature, Different Types of Heat (Enthalpy) of Reac­tion, Heat of Combustion, Heat of Solution, Heat of Neutralization, Energy Changes During Transitions or Phase Changes, Heat of Fusion, Heat of Vaporization, Heat of Sublimation, Heat of Transition, Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation, Applications of Hess’s Law, Bond Energy, Measurement of The Heat of Re­action (Calorimetric); (5) Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics: Entro­py as a State Function, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy Changes in Reversible Processes, Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes, Entropy of Mixing Ideal Gases, Entropy and Statistical Pro­ba­bil­ity, Calori­me­tric Deter­mina­tion of Entropies, The Third Law of Thermodyna­mics, Spe­cial To­pic: Heat Engines; (6) Phase Equilibrium: Phase, Components, Degrees of Free­­dom, Phase Rule, Phase Diagrams of One-Component Systems, The Cla­pey­ron Equa­­tion, The Clausius–Clapeyron Equation, Vapor–Liquid Equili­brium of Binary Li­quid Mixtures, Vapor Pressure of Non ideal Mixtures and Hen­ry’s Law, Activity Coeffi­cients, Two-Component Systems Consisting of Solid and Liquid Phases, Special Topic: Effect of Surface Tension on the Vapor Pressure; (7) Chemical Equilibrium: Derivation of the General Equilibrium Expression, Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Gas Re­actions, Determination of Equilibrium Constants, Use of Standard Gibbs Energies of For­­mation to Calculate Equilibrium Constants, Effect of Temperature on the Equilib­rium Constant, Effect of Pressure, Initial Composition, and Inert Gases on the Equilib­rium Composition,  Equilibrium Constants for Gas Reactions Written in Terms of Con­cen­trations,  Heterogeneous Reactions, Special Topic: Isomer Group Thermody­namics, Spe­cial Topic: Chemical Equations as Matrix Equations.

Tujuan/Objectives

Setelah mempelajari bahan kajian dalam perkuliahan, diskusi dan tanya jawab, dan mengerjakan latihan soal, mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan konsep dan prinsip dasar keadaan gas, cair, dan padat, sifat-sifat zat murni dan campuran serta dapat menerapkan gejala-gejala kimia yang ter­kait ber­da­sar­kan hukum-hukum termodinamik. /After learning concepts and basics principles of gas, liquid, and solid, characteristics of pure and mixture substances as well as be able to explain chemical phenomena related to thermodynamics laws, students can implement them into innovative products.

Daftar Pustaka/References

  1. Alberty, R.A .2005. Physical Chemistry, 4th edition. New York: Mc-Graw Hill.
  2. Atkins, P.W., Paula J. de. 2009. The Elements of Physical Chemistry, 5th edition. Oxford: London.
  3. Atkins, P.W., Paula J. de, 2010. Physical Chemistr, 9th edition, Oxford: London.
  4. Castellan, G.W. 1983. Physical Chemistry, 3rd edition. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.
  5. Levine, I. N, 2009. Physical Chemistry, 6th edition. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.